District Profile

S.N. Farming System / Enterprise
1 Due to mono cropping, Anna Pratha and non manageable condition of mar and kabar soil of the district. Mono cropping is the most common farming system. Mixed farming in the combination of agriculture and live stock is also quite common in all the areas.
2 Jowar-wheat, Bajra-wheat, Fallow-wheat, Fallow-chickpea, Fallow-field pea, Fallow-lentil, Soyabeen-wheat are the important crop rotations followed in different AESs. Mixed cropping are Sorghum+ Arhar, Barley+Gram+ Mustard is also common.
3 High resource farmers keep one graded buffalo and one or two cows. Whereas low resource farmers commonly have one or two buffalo+3-4 goats. Both high and low resource farmers keep milch animals for home consumption and also for sale. The share croppers also keep one or two desi buffaloes and 5-6 goats.
4 Tomato, onion, vegetable pea and chilies are important . Vegetable crop of the districts cultivated both by resource rich and resource poor farmers.
5 Few farmers have introduced mentha in the existing farming system of fellow-vegetable pea-mentha.
6 In the mahewa and kuthound block river bed farming system is also practiced especially by low resource and land less farmers.
6 In the mahewa and kuthound block river bed farming system is also practiced especially by low resource and land less farmers.
7 In the lower and upper ravines Sorghum-wheat, Bajra-wheat, Fellow-wheat+Mustard, Arhar and Jowar are common cropping systems.
8 Artision well are found in the belt of river Pahuj in Madhogharh and nadi gaon block in the district. There are ample opportunities for intensification of vegetable cultivation and also diversification to other crops.
9 Bhadawari buffalows are found in ravines of Yamuna and Pahuj as name indicates Jamuna pari goat is found in the villages located in the ravines of Yamuna.
10 Highest net returns is obtained from vegetable pea followed by chickpea, field pea and wheat respectively.

S.N. Farming System / Enterprise
1 Due to mono cropping, Anna Pratha and non manageable condition of mar and kabar soil of the district. Mono cropping is the most common farming system. Mixed farming in the combination of agriculture and live stock is also quite common in all the areas.
2 Jowar-wheat, Bajra-wheat, Fallow-wheat, Fallow-chickpea, Fallow-field pea, Fallow-lentil, Soyabeen-wheat are the important crop rotations followed in different AESs. Mixed cropping are Sorghum+ Arhar, Barley+Gram+ Mustard is also common.
3 High resource farmers keep one graded buffalo and one or two cows. Whereas low resource farmers commonly have one or two buffalo+3-4 goats. Both high and low resource farmers keep milch animals for home consumption and also for sale. The share croppers also keep one or two desi buffaloes and 5-6 goats.
4 Tomato, onion, vegetable pea and chilies are important . Vegetable crop of the districts cultivated both by resource rich and resource poor farmers.
5 Few farmers have introduced mentha in the existing farming system of fellow-vegetable pea-mentha.
6 In the mahewa and kuthound block river bed farming system is also practiced especially by low resource and land less farmers.
7 In the lower and upper ravines Sorghum-wheat, Bajra-wheat, Fellow-wheat+Mustard, Arhar and Jowar are common cropping systems.
8 Artision well are found in the belt of river Pahuj in Madhogharh and nadi gaon block in the district. There are ample opportunities for intensification of vegetable cultivation and also diversification to other crops.
9 Bhadawari buffalows are found in ravines of Yamuna and Pahuj as name indicates Jamuna pari goat is found in the villages located in the ravines of Yamuna.
10 Highest net returns is obtained from vegetable pea followed by chickpea, field pea and wheat respectively.

Description of Agro-climatic Zone & major agro ecological situations (based on soil and topography)

S.N. Agro-Climatic Zone Characteristics
1 Zone VI Bundel Khand Light brown loam to clay, generally structure less, average in water holding capacity and organic matter, moderately alkaline, restricted drainage, surface soil poor in lime content but the middle layer is calcareous, medium in soluble salts. Carbonates and sulphates practically absent . Light gray brown at surface to pale brown at lower depth, poor to average water holding capacity neutral in reaction and poor in-organic matter. Generally non calcareous with fair drainage, medium in soluble salts content with predominance bicarbonates and chlorides. These are black soils with high water holding capacity, neutral in reaction, slightly calcareous low in organic matter content, impeded drainage and prone to salinity in the water logged areas and average to soluble salts. Brown at surface and lighter brown sandy loam, average water holding capacity, neutral non-calcareous, fair drainage, low in soluble salts mainly comprising of bicarbonates and chlorides of sodium . Light texture at surface but becoming heavier below, average water holding capacity, neutral in reaction but lower layers moderately calcareous , High soluble salts that increase with dept.

S.N. Agro Ecological Situation Characteristics
1 AES - I Light brown loam to clay, generally structure less, average in water holding capacity and organic matter, moderately alkaline, restricted drainage, surface soil poor in lime content but the middle layer is calcareous, medium in soluble salts. Carbonates and sulphates practically absent.
2 AES - II Light gray brown at surface to pale brown at lower depth, poor to average water holding capacity neutral in reaction and poor in-organic matter. Generally non calcareous with fair drainage, medium in soluble salts content with predominance bicarbonates and chlorides.
3 AES - III These are black soils with high water holding capacity, neutral in reaction, slightly calcareous low in organic matter content, impeded drainage and prone to salinity in the water logged areas and average to soluble salts.
4 AES - IV Brown at surface and lighter brown sandy loam, average water holding capacity, neutral non-calcareous, fair drainage, low in soluble salts mainly comprising of bicarbonates and chlorides of sodium.
5 AES - V Light texture at surface but becoming heavier below, average water holding capacity, neutral in reaction but lower layers moderately calcareous , High soluble salts that increase with depth.

Soil Types

S.N. Soil Type Characteristics Area in ha
1 Parwa Soils Light brown loam to clay, generally structure less, average in water holding capacity and organic matter, moderately alkaline, restricted drainage, surface soil poor in lime content but the middle layer is calcareous, medium in soluble salts. Carbonates and sulphates practically absent. 196000
2 Kawar Soils Light gray brown at surface to pale brown at lower depth, poor to average water holding capacity neutral in reaction and poor in-organic matter. Generally non calcareous with fair drainage, medium in soluble salts content with predominance bicarbonates and chlorides. 73700
3 Mar Soils These are black soils with high water holding capacity, neutral in reaction, slightly calcareous low in organic matter content, impeded drainage and prone to salinity in the water logged areas and average to soluble salts. 62700
4 Rakar Soils Brown at surface and lighter brown sandy loam, average water holding capacity, neutral non-calcareous, fair drainage, low in soluble salts mainly comprising of bicarbonates and chlorides of sodium . 31442
5 Yamuna Alluvium Light texture at surface but becoming heavier below, average water holding capacity, neutral in reaction but lower layers moderately calcareous , High soluble salts that increase with depth. 20458